Advantages And Disadvantages Of Sexual Reproduction

Sexual reproduction requires both a female and male, and involves the fusion of two gametes to reproduce an offspring. Some unicellular organisms and plant may reproduce asexually, but most fish and mammals use sexual reproduction to reproduce offspring. But, there are organisms like the komodo dragons and corals that can reproduce asexually or sexually.

The 2 Types of Sexual Reproduction

There are two types of sexual reproduction – Syngamy and Conjugation.

1. Syngamy
This type of sexual reproduction is the permanent fusion of tow gametes in order to create a zygote. This is called fertilization in humans. Also, when tow fusing gamete are physiologically or morphologically similar with one another, the reproduction process is called Isogamy.

2. Conjugation
This is temporary fusion of two haploid gametes to exchange male and female cells using a cytoplasmic bridge.

The Top 4 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

1. Sexual reproduction permits variation, which is evolution’s fundamental element. It creates species, which can adapt to harsh environmental changes, and cannot be wiped out by a single disease. But, this reproduction process requires significant amount of energy in part of organisms finding a mate. This reproduction process is not suited to organisms stuck in one place or isolated.

2. The offspring’s genetics are unique as they are formed from crossing over. It is favorable when the environment is not favorable or stable for the specie. This is a slower rate of reproduction, but has faster evolution.

3. Also, sexual reproduction allows for fast removal odd bad mutations, which can conjoin two beneficial mutations. The offspring has better adaptation to host parasite arms race. And finally, offspring can be dispersed widely in different places from their parents.

4. Sexual reproduction allows for multiple numbers of offspring. The offspring can evolve at a fast rate.

The Top 2 Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction

1. Sexual reproduction requires two parents. The parents must expend energy in order to find; court or identify, and copulate with their mate. If conditions are stable, the genetic recombination may be counter-reproductive. Also, sexual reproduction is less efficient at passing in genes. The favorable genes combination may be broken.

2. Sexual reproduction also requires more time to produce offspring. Animals may take months before they can produce offspring. In plants, it may take years before they bear fruits, which is why asexual reproduction is most preferred by breeders.

Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a reproductions process that does not require the interaction between two different genders of the same species. The cells divide through mitosis – the process wherein each chromosome is copied before the nucleus divides. Each chromosome receives identical genetic information.

Asexual reproductions are perfect for organisms in place or unable to find mates. This reproduction process is well suited for organisms thriving in a stable environment. However, this reproduction process does not produce varying offspring, which means that the entire group can be wiped out by a single disease, or when the environment becomes unstable.

Generally, sexual reproduction is suited for animals, fish, and other types of plants while asexual reproduction is limited to plants only.