How to Correctly Construct Statistics in an Essay

In academic writing, statistics are an essential tool that can be used to provide evidence to support arguments, ideas, and theories. Using statistics in an essay is an effective way to make the paper more persuasive and engaging. However, constructing statistics in an essay requires some level of expertise to ensure the presentation is both accurate and effective. In this article, we will explore some essential tips on how to correctly construct statistics in an essay.

  1. Find Reliable Sources

    Before including statistics in your essay, it is important to ensure that they come from a reliable source. Use academic databases, government reports, and reputable research organizations as they tend to provide trustworthy and well-researched data. Avoid using biased or unverified sources as this could affect the credibility of your essay.

  2. Understand the Data

    It is essential to understand the data you intend to present in your essay. Analyzing the data will help you identify the relevant statistics to use in your essay, understand the context in which the data was collected, and interpret the results accurately. This way, you can avoid misinterpreting or misrepresenting the data in your essay.

  3. Formatting and Presentation

    When presenting statistics in your essay, proper formatting and presentation are essential. Depending on the type of statistics, use tables, graphs, or charts to present the data. Ensure that the visual aids used are appropriately labeled, and the units of measurement are correctly stated. Also, make sure the data is presented in a manner that is easy to read and understand.

  4. Citations

    Citing the sources of the data used in your essay is essential in academic writing. In-text citations should be used to indicate the source of the statistics presented in the essay. Additionally, a reference list should be provided at the end of the essay to give readers a detailed list of the sources used. Proper citation ensures that your essay is not plagiarized and that the credibility of the data used is maintained.


Here are a few examples to demonstrate how to correctly construct statistics in an essay:

  • Example 1: The number of people who own smartphones has increased by 52% over the past five years.

    According to a Pew Research Center report, the number of Americans who own smartphones has increased by 50% since 2011. This figure is consistent with other global trends, as smartphone usage continues to rise worldwide. In fact, as of 2023, there are approximately 6.925 billion smartphone users worldwide.

    Moreover, smartphone usage has become more widespread across different age groups, with 95% of American adults aged 18 to 49 owning a smartphone . The younger demographic, particularly those aged 15 to 17 years old, also exhibit a high frequency of smartphone use, with 52% reporting that they use the internet almost constantly.

    The popularity of smartphones is further evident in the revenue generated by smartphone manufacturers. Apple, for example, generated $394.3 billion in revenue in 2022, with 52% of that revenue coming from iPhone sales alone . In terms of market share, Xiaomi's smartphone market share in Europe has increased from 10% in Q1 2020 to as high as 24% in Q2 and Q3 of 2021.

    With the increasing prevalence of smartphones, the use of mobile devices has also surpassed desktop internet usage. In 2022, American adults spend an average of 5.5 hours on their phones. However, it is worth noting that prolonged smartphone usage can have negative health effects.

    Overall, the statistics highlight the growing popularity of smartphones globally and the increasing reliance on mobile devices for communication, entertainment, and daily tasks.

  • Example 2: According to a survey conducted by the National Institute of Health, 60% of Americans engage in physical activity for at least 30 minutes per day.

    The point mentioned is regarding the percentage of Americans who engage in physical activity for at least 30 minutes per day, according to a survey conducted by the National Institute of Health. The web search results provide several relevant sources of information regarding physical activity in the United States.

    One source, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), reports that among US adults aged 50 years and above, 28% were physically inactive in 2014, according to a study published in 2016. Inactivity was 30% higher among those with a chronic disease, and Hispanics, non-Hispanic Blacks, and adults with lower education levels were more likely to be inactive.

    The National Institutes of Health also provides some statistics on sleep and physical activity in the US. They report that 7% to 19% of adults do not get enough sleep, 40% fall asleep during the day at least once a month, and 50 to 70 million Americans have chronic sleep disorders. Additionally, the CDC reported in 2014 that 35% of all adults in the US experience short sleep duration (less than seven hours). These statistics suggest that there may be a correlation between physical activity levels and sleep habits.

    The Pew Research Center provides data on public opinion regarding marijuana legalization, abortion, and violence against Asian Americans, but does not have information directly related to physical activity.

    However, several sources do provide information on recommended levels of physical activity. The US Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends that adults get at least 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week. The World Health Organization recommends that individuals engage in at least 180 minutes of physical activity per week, with at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, spread throughout the day.

    Overall, while the web search did not provide specific information on the percentage of Americans who engage in physical activity for at least 30 minutes per day, it did provide information on recommended levels of physical activity, rates of physical inactivity, and sleep habits in the US.

  • Example 3: A study conducted by the American Heart Association found that women who ate at least two servings of fish per week had a 30% lower risk of developing heart disease.

In conclusion, constructing statistics in an essay requires careful consideration of reliable sources, understanding the data, proper formatting and presentation, and proper citation. By following these tips, you can effectively use statistics in your essay to support your arguments and make your writing more persuasive.